Calendula Oil Benefits & Features
- It is used in soothing cosmetics, such as after-sun, sensitive skin and eye contour products. (Diva Silva 1, 2021)
- Excellent for treating skin inflammation. (Sindhu, 2010)
- Its scientifically proven anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin damage granulation-accelerating properties. (Agnieszka Szopa*, 2019)
- Rich in flavonoids, triterpene alcohols, phenolic acids, saponins, carotenoids, and sterols, are suitable for dry, irritated & sensitive skin. (Joanna Kondziołka, 2022
- Calendula Oil stimulates skin cell regeneration, improves elasticity, and induces increased skin hydration because of lower TEWL (trans epidermal water loss) (M Buzzi 1, 2016 )
- Calendula Oil application accelerates wound healing and helps reconstruct the uppermost layer of the skin. (Joanna Kondziołka, 2022)
- Enriched flavonoids in the Calendula Oil stimulate the process of hyaluronan deposition and accelerate the formation of blood vessels, which helps wound healing. (K.F.M. Patrick 1 *, 1996,)
- Minerals and Antioxidants of Calendula oil to the scalp promote more robust hair growth by increasing collagen production and circulation in hair follicles. (Ancy Thomas, 2017)
- Preventing skin damage and delaying ageing by decreasing TEWL (trans epidermal water loss) and the hydration effect of Calendula Oil can induce skin tightness by increasing skin elasticity. (NAVEED AKHTAR, 2010)
- Maintain skin integrity and appearance by increasing & retaining moisturising effects and protecting the skin barrier by balancing lipid & water content. (Naveed Akhtar, 2011)
- Calendula Oil is used in the traditional system of medicine of its rich bioactive compounds (ethnomedical) importance. (Shalini Sharma, 2021)
Calendula Oil Info:
INCI: Calendula Officinalis Flower Oil
Also Known as Calendula Oil
Family: Asteraceae/ Compositae
CAS Number: 84776-23-8 / 70892-20-5
All Functions: masking, perfuming, skin conditioning
Description: calendula officinalis flower oil is the oil derived from the flowers of the calendula, calendula officinalis l., compositae (J. C. Chalchat, 1991)
Colour: Yellow to Orange (Worwood, 2001)
Aroma: Faint & Aromatic (Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, 2018)
Also Called: Pot marigold, English marigold, Bride of the Sun, bull flower, butterwort. (Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, 2018)
Since immemorial, plants have been considered an essential source for treating many diseases. Herbal medicine uses medicinal plants, which are the basis of traditional medicine. These herbal therapies are free from any side effects. India has a rich source of plants for healthcare to prevent diseases & disorders; Calendula officinalis L. is among such aromatic herbs, which is used in the traditional system of medicine, i.e., Ayurveda, for a long because of its rich ethnomedical importance. (Shalini Sharma, 2021)
Calendula officinalis, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is commonly known as English marigold or pot marigold. It is used in the Traditional system of medicine for treating wounds, ulcers, herpes, scars, skin damage, frostbite & blood purification. It is used primarily because of its various biological activities. (Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, 2018)
Chemically, Calendula officinalis possesses various biological active constituents such as carotenoids, Flavonoids, saponins, sterols, phenolic acids, lipids, etc. Various parts of the plant, such as leaves and flowers, have been reported to possess therapeutic activity. (BP Muley*, 2009;)
It has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal & antiviral. And has been widely used in homoeopathic medicine to treat many diseases. (Sindhu, 2010)
Generally, in external cases, it is used for treating skin inflammations, open wounds and laceration wounds with bleeding. It is also used for treating minor diseases like razor burns and wind burns. (Sindhu, 2010)
The flowers were made into extracts, tinctures, balms and salves and applied directly to the skin to help heal wounds and to soothe inflamed and damaged skin. (Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, 2018)
Classification of Calendula officinalis (Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, 2018)
Our Product with Calendula Oil
Our Comprehensive range of SPA Collection contains Neroli Calendula Body Oil & Rosehip Body Oil that is enriched with the Goodness of Calendula Oil. It is rich in Anti-inflammatory, Anti-spasmodic & Wound healing properties and is excellent for damaged skin, rashes & other skin disorders. It calms & soothes the skin providing maximum hydration & suitable for sensitive skin. Calendula Oil helps to promote skin renewal & increase skin elasticity and is therefore excellent for pregnant women who want to prevent skin stretch marks. It is effective on bedsores and broken veins & perfect for rashes & chapped, cracked & dry skin.
WINTER CARE FOR DRY & SENSITIVE SKIN: Designed especially for Dry & Itchy skin in Winter due to moisture loss as cold wind & temperature drops imbalance the skin's hydration level. Light, Non-sticky & Quick absorbing Neroli Calendula Body Oil Hydrates, Moisturize & Soothe the skin from Dryness, Sensitivity & Cracked Chapped issues of the Winter season. Infused Neroli Essential Oil, Calendula Oil & Vitamin E with Beautiful Floral Aroma, soothe inflammation & irritation, rejuvenate the skin & protect the skin barrier from environmental damage by locking moisture.
Lightweight, Non-sticky Oil with a Rosy & Woody Aroma absorbs quickly into the skin & reduces Stretch Marks in the Thighs, Hips, Buttocks & Abdomen, which can happen during Puberty, Pregnancy & Bodybuilding etc. A high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids makes Rosehip an excellent oil for mature skin. Calendula Oil also helps to promote skin renewal & increase skin elasticity & is perfect for preventing skin stretch marks. A Magical blend of Rosehip & Calendula Oil with Almond Oil & Wheat germ Oil relieves Dryness to increase Moisture & Skin Brightening & Elasticity to reduce Scars, aging signs & inflammation & hydrates the areas prone to Stretch Marks & make Skin even.
Calendula Oil Research Findings
Chemical Compounds in Calendula Oil:
- Volatile oil
- Amino acids
Calendula Oil Benefits for Face
Overexposure to the sun, climate conditions, health & habits affect our overall skin. But the exposed part of the skin is our face, where these external effects leave their signs in the form of Pigmentation, Wrinkles, Fine lines, Sensitiveness, Dark spots & patches & Sagging skin or signs of Ageing.
As skin ages, there is a decline in physiologic function. These changes are induced by intrinsic (chronologic) and extrinsic (predominately UV-induced) factors. (Baron, 2018) One of the most visible signs of skin ageing is skin wrinkling, which results from decreased levels of collagen and accelerated collagen breakdown.
Calendula flower extract (Calendula officinalis) is used in soothing cosmetics, such as after-sun, sensitive skin and eye contour products. (Diva Silva 1, 2021)
It is a popular species in the cosmetics industry due to its scientifically proven anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin damage granulation-accelerating properties. (Agnieszka Szopa*, 2019)Calendula is present mainly in cosmetics with soothing, softening and regenerating effects.
In vitro studies on skin cells with induced oxidative stress have proven that ethanol extracts from C. officinalis flowers have a strong antioxidant effect and protect cells from the damaging effects of UV radiation. (Xuan, 2016.) Other studies have shown that C. officinalis flower extract stimulates skin cell regeneration, improves elasticity, and induces increased skin hydration because of lower TEWL (trans epidermal water loss) (M Buzzi 1, 2016 )
Calendula oil has been proven that it has a stronger inhibitory effect on pathogenic fungal strains and a stronger antioxidant activity.
Calendula Oil Benefits for Skin
Nowadays, herbal extracts are used in cosmetic preparations to augment beauty and attractiveness. Among the natural active ingredients used in skin care preparations, there is also pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) The raw material is rich in essential oils, flavonoids, triterpene alcohols, phenolic acids, saponins, carotenoids, and sterols which have moisturising and anti-inflammatory effects and are suitable for dry, irritated & sensitive skin. The topical application accelerates wound healing and epidermal reconstruction. (Joanna Kondziołka, 2022)
Research conducted by Patrick et al. in 1996 proved that the flavonoids in the extract stimulate the process of hyaluronan deposition and accelerate the formation of blood vessels, which would confirm the theory of its effect on wound healing. (K.F.M. Patrick 1 *, 1996,)
Calendula Oil for Acne
Acne is a chronic disease of the pilosebaceous follicle that causes polymorph cutaneous lesions such as comedone, papules, cysts, pustules, and abscesses, which, after regression, may leave scars. (Ramos-e-Silva & Carneiro, 2009) Acne can present at any age, from neonates to mature adults, but is most prevalent and severe during adolescence, reaching a peak at the age of 14-17 years in females and 16-19 years in males.
Calendula flowers are part of the herb used medicinally (mainly because of its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties) either in infusions, tinctures, liquid extracts, creams or ointments, or in one of several skin and hair products. Several phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of many chemical compounds in flowers or other organs of marigolds, the main ones being terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, quinones, volatile oil, carotenoids and amino acids. (BP Muley, 2009 )
Marigold is considered a mainstay in alternative medicine for treating inflammation, speeding wound healing and as an antiseptic. In topical herbal forms and as a homoeopathic preparation, marigolds' anti-inflammatory (Pier Carlo Braga 1, 2009 ) and anti-bacterial (L Iauk 1, 2003 )properties may help treat dermatological conditions, including acne. (BP Muley, 2009 )
A recent study was conducted on flower extracts to determine the mechanism involved. C. officinalis also contains flavonoids, which accounts for its anti-inflammatory impact (Korengath Chandran Preethi 1, 2009 ). Different hydroalcoholic extracts of marigolds possess proven antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral properties.
Calendula Oil & Skin Elasticity:
An essential balance between the water content of the stratum corneum and skin surface lipids maintains the proper functioning and appearance of the skin. This balance is disrupted by exposure to external factors like air humidity, UV radiation, temperature and hormones. The dermis is largely made up of interwoven fibres, principally of collagen, packed in bundles. When the skin is stretched, collagen, with its high tensile strength, prevents tearing, and elastic fibres intermingled with the collagen return to their unstretched state. As the ageing process occurs, many changes are observed in our skin. More wrinkles and pigmentation are seen, less moisture and lipids, and the skin also becomes sagged because of the loss of its elasticity. (NAVEED AKHTAR, 2010). These changes are induced by intrinsic (chronologic) and extrinsic (predominately UV-induced) factors. (Molly Campa, 2018). The evaluation of skin elasticity is very important because it is not as visible as other signs of ageing, such as wrinkles. The elastic fibres progressively disappear and lose their branched appearance with age. Skin mechanical parameters are very sensitive to epidermal hydration. These are influenced by the epidermal hydration produced by topical applications. (NAVEED AKHTAR, 2010). Botanicals are products derived from plants that offer photoprotection, decreased trans epidermal water loss (TEWL), increased skin elasticity, increased collagen formation, decreased facial pigmentation, or offer antioxidant effects on the skin. (Molly Campa, 2018). Calendula officinalis can produce some beneficial effects on the skin. The hydration effect is very important for normal cutaneous metabolism and may also prevent skin alteration and early ageing. Increasing Hydration can induce skin tightness, preventing skin damage and delaying ageing. (NAVEED AKHTAR, 2010)
Calendula Oil soothes inflammation:
Skin inflammation takes place in response to damage to the normal skin barrier. (Tzu-Kai Lin 1, 2017)
Calendula officinalis L. (marigold) flower oil contains several bioactive compounds, including terpenoids and terpenes, carotenoids, flavonoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (Diva Silva 1, 2021) help to maintain skin barrier function.
In cosmetic products, calendula is used in formulations for sensitive skin and soothing products among various presentations, including skin, eye, hair and bath products with recognised security for use in cosmetics. Several Calendula preparations are available for topical formulations directed towards wound healing and soothing inflamed and damaged skin, like extracts, tinctures, and oils. (Diva Silva 1, 2021)
Calendula Oil & Hydration:
The uppermost Stratum Corneum layer of the skin acts as a permeability and antimicrobial barrier. This antimicrobial barrier is attributed to the weak acidity of skin surface pH, free sphingoid bases generated from epidermal ceramides and antimicrobial peptides within the intercellular compartment. The Hydration of this layer is also crucial for the integrity and the maintenance of the skin barrier homeostasis. Natural moisturising factor (NMF) components within the corneocytes contribute to the hydration of the uppermost layer. (Tzu-Kai Lin 1, 2017)
The main chemical components of marigolds are steroids, terpenoids, free & esterified triterpene alcohol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and other compounds. (Molly Campa, 2018). These help to prevent skin damage by increasing hydration levels to protect TEWL. The hydration effect is very important for normal cutaneous metabolism and may also avoid alteration in the skin and early ageing. (NAVEED AKHTAR, 2010)
Calendula Oil provides Moisturising effects:
The moisturising effects involve repairing the skin barrier, retaining/increasing water content, reducing TEWL, restoring the lipid barrier’s ability to attract, hold and redistribute water, and maintaining skin integrity and appearance. (Naveed Akhtar, 2011)
Calendula officinalis has been reported to stimulate physiological regeneration and epithelisation, which can reduce TEWL. (Naveed Akhtar, 2011)
Calendula Oil for Wound healing:
Calendula oil with flavonoids, triterpene alcohols, phenolic acids, saponins, carotenoids, and sterols has moisturising and anti-inflammatory effects and healing properties. Calendula officinalis extract may aid wound healing by promoting epithelial growth and enhancing immune responses. (Jobey Waghmare, 2018)
Calendula Oil for Hair:
Formulators have found innovative ways to use plant-derived ingredients in place of harsh, dangerous chemicals. Ingredients of chemical base shampoos have been proven to reduce the size of hair follicles, irritate and disrupt oil glands, and dry out the scalp, which ultimately can result in hair loss. Natural shampoos contain beneficial natural plant and herb extracts, which provide several favorable results for the hair and scalp.
The benefits of using natural shampoos are outlined below.
- Promotes new hair growth by naturally stimulating the hair follicles.
- Infuses natural oils, minerals, and herbal extracts into hair follicles to maintain moisture and improve the overall condition.
- Because it contains all-natural ingredients, it is a nonallergenic product which makes it suitable for all skin types, including sensitive and allergy-prone skin.
- Natural shampoos feature a more natural and milder aroma.
- Natural shampoos are environmentally friendly as they contain bio-degradable materials rather than harsh chemicals. (Ancy Thomas, 2017)
The flowers of Calendula officinalis are rich in minerals and antioxidants. Calendula oil to the scalp promotes more robust hair growth by increasing collagen production and circulation in hair follicles. Use calendula alone or in combination with another moisturiser. (Ancy Thomas, 2017) According to the Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science, 70% of ethanol extracts of C. Officinalis help to promote hair growth. (Jin, 2017)
How to Use:
You can use Calendula oil on your skin twice daily.
Calendula Ointment uses: Multiple parts of the plant, such as leaves and flowers, have been reported to possess therapeutic activity. The flowers were made into extracts, tinctures, balms, creams and salves and applied directly to the skin to help heal wounds and to soothe inflamed and damaged skin. (Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, 2018)
Calendula Oil Uses: Most people use Calendula Officinalis as an oil or salve, which they apply topically to specific areas of the skin. This is the most effective way to carry out wound healing or to remedy conditions like acne, psoriasis, or burns, as it addresses them directly.
Whenever using any preparation of Marigold extracts or Oil, special care must be taken by people who are allergic to species from the family Asteraceae (Monica Corazza 1, 2014 ). The most common reaction is skin allergies (contact sensitisation), as reported by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA, Reider et al. 2001) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). (Agnieszka Szopa*, 2019)
Always do a patch test before application.
How to Store Calendula infused Oil
After the calendula oil is strained, store it in a glass container such as a jar – or you may transfer it into a bottle with a pump. Store the calendula oil in an excellent, dry location. You can also store your calendula oil in the refrigerator to extend the shelf life!
Frequently Asked Questions:
- Where Does Calendula Oil Come from?
Ans. This is a natural oil extracted from Calendula officinalis (Marigold). It is used for topical application for different types of skin conditions.
- How to use calendula oil on the face?
Due to shine and greasiness, many people avoid using oil on their faces, but many reports that it is perfectly safe for facial use because Calendula oil has been proven that it has a stronger inhibitory effect on pathogenic fungal strains and a stronger antioxidant activity and is also suitable for sensitive & ageing skin.
But do always patch test before using.
- How is calendula oil made?
Ans.Calendula oil is a super-effective topical oil; that has been infused with dry calendula flowers. It can be used alone as a luxurious massage oil.
The flowers are steeped in a carrier oil, such as olive or jojoba oil, for several weeks or longer. Whole dry flower heads or petals can be used, but they must be fully dry. While steeping, the natural active resins within the calendula flowers are extracted and drawn into the oil.
The finished calendula oil can be used on its own or as an ingredient to create other natural salves, ointments, or creams! The options for using calendula oil are somewhat dictated by the carrier oil you choose to make the infusion. For example, some oils are inedible, and others may need to be better for your skin.
- How to make calendula oil fast?
Ans. The second way, much quicker, is to place your jar of calendula and oil on the stovetop in a double boiler. To make a double boiler, fill a medium-sized pot 1/2 complete with water and place your glass jar with the oil and flowers. Next, heat on low for 4-6 hours.
- Is calendula oil safe during pregnancy?
Ans. Internal use of calendula is traditionally contraindicated during pregnancy due to its presumed uterine stimulant effects. No studies have evaluated its safety during pregnancy, lactation or childhood. (Kemper, 1999)
Several conditions that calendula is used to treat occur during pregnancy, but its use could harm the developing baby. It should be avoided until your baby is weaned.
- Is calendula oil safe for babies?
Ans. No studies have evaluated its safety during pregnancy, lactation or childhood. (Kemper, 1999)
Calendula extract-containing cream and gels treat nappy rash (diaper dermatitis) for babies or infants. (sarah E. Edwards, 2015)
Suggested Research Papers for Further Reading:
- Diva Silva 1, M. S.-L. ( 2021, April 25). Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. Flower https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020031
- Tzu-Kai Lin 1, L. Z. ( 2017, December 27 ). Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010070
- Agnieszka Szopa*, M. K.-S. (2019, 06. 13.). Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) – a position. doi:: 1 https://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/bitstream/handle/item/257919/szopa_et-al_pot_marigold_calendula_officinalis_l0.24326/asphc.2020.3
- (n.d.). ( 2016). Antioxidant and Cellular Protective Effects against Oxidative Stress of Calendula officinalis Flowers Extracts in Human Skin Cells. doi:https://doi.org/10.14478/ace.2016.1093
- Agnieszka Szopa*, M. K.-S. (n.d.). Agnieszka Szopa*, M. K.-S. (2019, 06. 13.). Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) – a position. doi:: 10.24326/asphc.2020.3.5
- Ancy Thomas, S. A. (2017, 02 02). Hair is an accoutrement, hair is jewelry, it’s an. Retrieved from https://www.plantsjournal.com/archives/2017/vol5issue2/PartD/5-2-29-448.pdf
- Baron, M. C. (2018). Anti-aging Effects of Select Botanicals: Scientific Evidence and Current Trends. doi:doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5030054
- BP Muley*, S. K. ( 2009;, October). Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological. Retrieved from http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?pr09059
- BP Muley, S. K. (2009 , 5). Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Calendula officinalis Linn (Asteraceae): A Review. doi:10.4314/tjpr.v8i5.48090
- Diva Silva 1, M. S.-L. ( 2021, April 25). Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Extract. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020031
- Diva Silva 1, M. S.-L. ( 2021, April 25 ). Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Extract. doi:doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020031
- G Willuhn 1, R. G. ( 1987 , Jun). Loliolide (Calendin) from Calendula officinalis. doi:10.1055/s-2006-962718
- H.KomaeN.Hayashi. ( 1971, August). n-Paraffins of the petals of Calendula officinalis. doi:doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86470-5
- J. C. Chalchat, R. P. ( 1991, September). doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.2730060306
- Jin, S. W. (2017). Cell Viability and Hair Growth Effect on 3T3-L1 Cells of Ethanol Extract from Calendula officinalis L. Flower, Phellinus linteus Fruit Body and Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Whole Plant. doi:https://doi.org/10.7783/KJMCS.2017.25.6.404
- Joanna Kondziołka, S. W. ( 2022, Nov 13). Overview of the Active Ingredients in Cosmetic Products for the Care of Skin That Has Been Exposed to Ionizing Radiation – Analysis of Their Effectiveness in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.2147/CCID.S322228
- Jobey Waghmare, N. R. ( 2018, October-December). Effectiveness of Calendula Oil Application on Lscs Wound. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mohammad-Suliman-2/publication/327883229_Measuring_Nurses'_Compliance_with_Safety_Precautions_for_Patients_in_Intensive_Care_Units/links/5bab2a6c45851574f7e6501a/Measuring-Nurses-Compliance-with-Safety-Precautions-for-
- K.F.M. Patrick 1 *, S. K. (1996,, May ). Induction of vascularisation by an aqueous extract of the flowers of Calendula officinalis L. the European marigold. doi:/doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(96)80004-3
- Kemper, K. J. (1999, July 1). Calendula (Calendula officinalis). Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/SHELI/Downloads/6%20(3).pdf
- Korengath Chandran Preethi 1, G. K. (2009 , Feb). Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis Linn. and its possible mechanism of action. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19374166/
- L Iauk 1, A. M. (2003 , Jun). Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria. doi:10.1002/ptr.1188
- M Buzzi 1, F. d. (2016 , Dec 2). Therapeutic effectiveness of a Calendula officinalis extract in venous leg ulcer healing. doi:10.12968/jowc.2016.25.12.732.
- Molly Campa, E. B. (2018, September 18). Anti-aging Effects of Select Botanicals: Scientific Evidence and Current Trends. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5030054
- Monica Corazza 1, A. B. (2014 , Feb). Topical botanically derived products: use, skin reactions, and usefulness of patch tests. A multicentre Italian study. doi:10.1111/cod.12124.
- NAVEED AKHTAR, S. U. (2010, 07 21). CALENDULA EXTRACT: EFFECTS ON MECHANICAL PARAMETERS. Retrieved from https://ptfarm.pl/pub/File/Acta_Poloniae/2011/5/693.pdf
- Naveed Akhtar, S.-u.-z. B. ( 2011, January, 10). Evaluation of various functional skin parameters using. doi:I: 10.5897/AJPP10.368
- NELOFER JAN1, K. I. ( 2017, August 01). Calendula officinalis - An Important Medicinal Plant with Potential Biological Properties. doi: 10.16943/ptinsa/2017/49126
- Pier Carlo Braga 1, M. D. (2009 , May 7). Antioxidant activity of Calendula officinalis extract: inhibitory effects on chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. doi:10.1159/000217583
- Plant extracts: To accelerate healing and reduce inflammation. (1985). Retrieved from https://pascal-francis.inist.fr/vibad/index.php?action=getRecordDetail&idt=8554023
- Ramos-e-Silva, M., & Carneiro, S. C. ( 2009, Apr). Acne Vulgaris: Review and. Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/openview/a1e1bb63318dbcbb5eb9a43b20fc59e3/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=30
- sarah E. Edwards, I. d. (2015). An evidence-based guide to herbal medicinal products. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KGu5BgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA81&dq=is+calendula+oil+using+safe+during+pregnancy%3F&ots=Z7DAJvQKPU&sig=2-j8E9lVD5MjM9cZqo5qYDGdcCI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=is%20calendula%20oil%20using%20safe%20during%20pregnancy%3F
- Shalini Sharma, K. K. ( 2021, Oct 31). AN OVERVIEW ON CALENDULA OFFICINALIS LINN.: (POT MARIGOLD). doi:https://doi.org/10.55218/JASR.s2202112302
- Sindhu, C. G. (2010, 09 12). PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS LINN. Retrieved from http://www.ijrap.net/admin/php/uploads/271_pdf.pdf
- Tzu-Kai Lin 1, L. Z. ( 2017, December 27 ). Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010070
- Verma, P. K. (2018, Dec). Phytochemical ingredients and Pharmacological potential of Calendula officinalis Linn. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Cellular-mechanisms-for-the-pharmacological-effects-of-Calendula-
- Verma, P. K. (2018, Dec). Phytochemical ingredients and Pharmacological potential of Calendula officinalis Linn. doi:DOI: 10.18502/pbr.v4i2.214
- Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, A. K. ( 2018, April 20). doi: 10.15406/ppij.2018.06.00171
- Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, A. K. ( 2018 , January 20). Therapeutic Potential of Calendula officinalis. doi:10.15406/ppij.2018.06.00171
- Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, A. K. (2018, April 20). Therapeutic Potential of Calendula officinalis. doi:10.15406/ppij.2018.06.00171
- Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan, A. K. (2018, April 20, ). Therapeutic Potential of Calendula officinalis. doi:10.15406/ppij.2018.06.00171
- Worwood, V. A. (2001). Aromatherapy for the beauty Therapist.Xuan, S. H. ( 2016., .10 12). Antioxidant and Cellular Protective Effects against Oxidative Stress of Calendula officinalis Flowers Extracts in Human Skin Cells. doi:https://doi.org/10.14478/ace.2016.1093
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